Timeline of History
Years Before the Present
13.82 billion, The Big Bang
- Birth of the Universe
- Matter and energy appear; Beginning of physics.
- Atoms and molecules appear; Beginning of chemistry.
13.7 billion, First stars
- Metal-poor, Population III stars form
13.4 billion, GN-Z11
- Oldest known galaxy
12.9 billion, ULAS J1120+0641
- Oldest known quasar
12.7 billion, PSR B1620-28 B
- “Methuselah”, the oldest known planet.
7.8 billion, Dark Energy Era
- The Universe begins to accelerate its expansion
4.56 billion, Formation of the Solar System
- Jupiter’s ‘Grand Attack’ scrambles orbits of outer planets, ejects proto-super-Earths from inner Solar System, paving way for the Earth’s formation.
- Possible extrasolar world, Planet 9, captured from neighbouring star?
4.55 billion, Big Splat
- Earth-Moon system forms from the collision with proto-planet Theia.
3.88 billion, Origin of Life
- Simple chemical aggregates, with primitive replicative and metabolic functions, evolve.
- Beginning of biology.
3.4 billion, Photosynthesis
- First autotrophs evolve.
2.7 billion, Eukaryotes Evolve
- Complex cellular organisms evolve from the symbiosis of Archaea and Eubacteria.
2.3 billion, Great Oxygenation Event
- Earth’s atmospheric oxygen content increases.
1.8 billion, Sudbury Basin
- Meteorite impact creates 250 km crater
1.4 billion, Blackhole Mergers
- Blackhole collisions occur which produce gravitational waves that are registered by the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-Wave Observatory, LIGO.
1 billion, Sexual Healing
- Sexual reproduction appears in eukaryotic organisms.
720 million, Cryogenian Period
- “Snowball Earth” glaciation begins, in which planet is almost completely frozen
600 million, Ediacaran Fauna
- First metazoans appear
542 million, Cambrian Explosion
- Modern animal phyla evolve
400 million, Land Plants
- Terrestrial flora well established
375 million, Tiktaalik
- First land tetrapods evolve
310 million, High Oxygen Levels
- Atmospheric oxygen spiked at 35%, leading to the evolution of huge invertebrates.
250 million, Permian-Triassic Extinction
- 90% of marine, 70% of terrestrial organisms disappear.
231 million, Dinosaurs Appear
- They dominate throughout the Mesozoic Era.
100 million, Flowering Plants
- They replace conifers to become dominant plant form by this time.
70 million, Tyrannosaurus Rex
- Nature’s most efficient hunting machine, the large carnivorous theropod.
66 million, K-T extinction Event
- Dinosaurs and many other Mesozoic animals become extinct; likely caused by meteor impacts.
50 million, Whales Evolve
- Begins with amphibious predators.
23 million, Antarctic Glaciation
- Opening of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current puts the continent on ice.
7 million, Earliest Hominin?
- Last common grandmother of humans and chimpanzees, Sahelanthropus tchadensis.
3.2 million, Lucy
- Australopithecus afarensis.
- Evolution of the genus Homo in Africa.
- First stone tools, Oldowan tools
2.3 million, Out of Africa 1?
- Humans spread from Africa to Eurasia.
- Evolution of different human species.
1.9 million, Homo erectus
- Modern human body plan evolves.
- Last major eruption of Mount Kilimanjaro
1 million, Use of Fire?
- Possible date of first human use of fire.
- Neanderthals evolve in Europe and the Middle East.
- Daily usage of fire.
- Homo sapiens evolves in East Africa.
74,000, Toba Eruption
- Humankind’s biggest volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8; triggers global cooling.
70,000, Cognitive Revolution.
- Emergence of fictive language.
- Beginning of history.
- Sapiens spread out of Africa.
45,000, Sapiens settle Australia.
- Extinction of Australian megafauna.
32,000, Chauvet Cave Paintings
- Earliest known figurative cave paintings
- Extinction of Neanderthals.
16,000, Sapiens settle America.
- Extinction of American megafauna.
13,000, Extinction of Homo floresiensis.
- Homo sapiens is the only surviving human species.
12,000, Agricultural Revolution.
- Domestication of plants and animals.
- Permanent settlements.
5,200, Earliest Writing
- The cuneiform script of the Sumerian civilization.
5,000, First Kingdoms
- Emergence of money.
- Polytheistic religions.
4,600, Egyptian Pyramids
- The Great Pyramid is constructed by the Pharaoh Khufu
4,250, First Empire
- The Akkadian Empire of Sargon.
- Invention of coinage – a universal money.
- The Persian Empire – a universal political order ‘for the benefit of all humans’.
- Buddhism in India – a universal truth ‘to liberate all beings from suffering’.
1,800, Roman Empire at its height
- Roman Civilisation reaches its noontide under the “Five Good Emperors”
- Han Empire in China.
- Roman Empire in the Mediterranean.
965, Crab Nebula
- Chinese observe progenitor supernova SN 1054
700, Mali Empire
- Mansa Musa helms the gold-producing Mali Empire, becoming the richest person who was, is, and ever will be.
- The world’s first university is built in Timbuktu.
583-611 Zheng He
- Ming admiral conducts seven exploratory voyages in the Indian Ocean, once docking in Malindi, Kenya.
500, Scientific Revolution
- Humankind admits its ignorance and begins to acquire unprecedented power.
- Europeans begin to conquer America and the oceans; The entire planet becomes a single historical arena.
- The rise of capitalism.
410, Galileo Galilei
- Uses telescope to make astronomical observations
200, Industrial Revolution
- Family and community are replaced by state and market.
- Massive extinction of plants and animals.
160, Theory of Evolution
- Charles Darwin introduces the concept of evolution through natural selection, creating an irreconcilable rift between science and religions.
- Fiction’s greatest character, The Batman, is created.
74, Trinity Test
- Detonation of the first atomic bomb.
- Nuclear weapons threaten the survival of, not only humans, but all higher life forms on Earth.
- Launch of the first artificial satellite.
59, Yuri Gagarin
- Human beings transcend the boundaries of planet Earth with Yuri as the first person in space.
50, Moon Landing
- Human beings walk on another world.
29, Hubble Space Telescope
Launched with the primary objectives to:
- investigate the constitution, physical characteristics, and dynamics of celestial bodies
- determine the nature of processes occurring in stellar and galactic objects
- study the history and evolution of the universe
- confirm universality of physical laws
- provide a long-term space research facility for optical astronomy
- Widespread use of the World Wide Web begins.
8, D-Wave One
- Considered the world’s first commercially-available quantum computer.
6, Higgs Boson
- Discovered by European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.
- Humankind’s first-ever photograph of a black hole, M87*.
- Penda Kujua is founded with the goal of empowering its readers and maximizing human potential.
- One million species, roughly an eighth of all life forms are at the edge of extinction.
- Organisms are increasingly shaped by intelligent design rather than natural selection.
- Does intelligent design become the basic principle of life?
- Homo sapiens is replaced by superhumans?